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          狡猾的細菌(上)

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          Science & technology

          科技板塊

          Immunology

          免疫學

          Fed by the hand that should bite it

          已攻擊自己的東西為食

          A bacterium that tricks the immune system into nurturing it

          一種欺騙免疫系統培養它的細菌

          The immune system has many weapons with which to counter hostile incomers.

          免疫系統有許多武器可以用來對抗敵對的入侵者。

          But what works against one may not be effective against another.

          但對一種病毒起作用的方法對另一種可能不起作用。

          An interloper can take advantage of this by misdirecting the system into thinking it is fighting an enemy that it is not.

          入侵者可以利用這一點,誤導系統,讓它們認為自己正在與另一個敵人作戰,而實際上并非如此。

          This buys time for that interloper to become entrenched.

          這為闖入者扎根贏得了時間。

          That is sneaky.

          這太狡猾了。

          Sneakier still, though, is the approach just discovered by Ruslan Medzhitov of Yale University.

          不過,耶魯大學的魯斯蘭·梅德日托夫剛剛發現的方法更“狡猾”。

          As he and his colleagues report in Immunity, they have found a bacterium that induces its host’s immune system to release compounds on which it can then feed.

          正如他和他的同事在《免疫》雜志上報道的那樣,他們發現了一種細菌,它可以誘導宿主的免疫系統釋放出化合物,并以此為食。

          Mammalian immune systems have two modes of attack.

          哺乳動物的免疫系統有兩種攻擊模式。

          Type-1 is used against bacteria and viruses; type-2 against multicellular parasites such as worms.

          類型1用于對抗細菌和病毒;類型2用于對抗多細胞寄生蟲,如蠕蟲。

          Some invading bacteria, however, provoke a type-2 response when type-1 would be appropriate.

          然而,一些入侵的細菌會在適合類型1的攻擊模式下引發類型2的反應。

          Dr Medzhitov decided to take a closer look.

          梅德日托夫博士決定更進一步觀察。

          He and his colleagues studied the behaviour of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium which causes stubborn infections in people with cystic fibrosis.

          他和他的同事研究了銅綠假單胞菌的行為,這是一種導致囊性纖維癥患者頑固感染的細菌。

          They suspected it was leading the body to mount an ineffective type-2 response against it and wanted to know how it was doing this.

          他們懷疑這是導致身體對它進行無效的2型反應,并想知道它是如何做到這一點的。

          To explore the matter, they grew laboratory cultures of the sorts of epithelial cells that line human airways and monitored their gene-expression profiles when exposed to LasB, a toxic enzyme produced by the bacterium.

          為了探究這一問題,他們在實驗室培養了人體呼吸道內的各種上皮細胞,并監測了它們在接觸LasB時的基因表達譜,LasB是一種由細菌產生的有毒酶。

          They found that LasB activated signalling pathways which drove the epithelial cells to make a protein called amphiregulin.

          他們發現LasB激活了信號通路,驅動上皮細胞產生一種名為雙調節蛋白的蛋白質。

          This forms the basis of a thick mucus that excels at ensnaring parasitic worms.

          這形成了厚厚的粘液的基礎,這種粘液擅長誘捕寄生蟲。

          It also recruits immune cells called eosinophils, which are adept at attacking multicellular parasites.

          它還影響了被稱為嗜酸性粒細胞的免疫細胞,這種細胞擅長攻擊多細胞寄生蟲。

          重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
          counter ['kauntə]

          想一想再看

          n. 計算器,計算者,柜臺
          [計算機] 計數器

           
          ineffective [ini'fektiv]

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          adj. 無效的,無能的,效率低的

          聯想記憶
          release [ri'li:s]

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          n. 釋放,讓渡,發行
          vt. 釋放,讓與,準

          聯想記憶
          immunity [i'mju:niti]

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          n. 免疫,免疫性,免除

          聯想記憶
          bacteria [bæk'tiəriə]

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          n. (復數)細菌

           
          enzyme ['enzaim]

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          n. 酶

          聯想記憶
          explore [iks'plɔ:]

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          v. 探險,探測,探究

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          exposed [iks'pəuzd]

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          adj. 暴露的,無掩蔽的,暴露于風雨中的 v. 暴露,

           
          toxic ['tɔksik]

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          adj. 有毒的
          n. 有毒物質

          聯想記憶
          hostile ['hɔstail]

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          adj. 懷敵意的,敵對的

           
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