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      "去增長"能挽救世界嗎?

      來源:可可英語 編輯:Magi ?  可可英語APP下載 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet
        


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      Degrowth economics is the idea that the planet cannot survive endless economic growth.

      “去增長經濟學”認為地球無法在無休止的經濟增長中生存下來。

      That idea goes against modern economics, where growth is widely considered the best way for nations to build wealth.

      這種觀點與現代經濟學相悖,現代經濟學認為經濟增長被廣泛認為是國家積累財富的最佳方式。

      But the theory is becoming more accepted.

      但這一理論正在被越來越多的人接受。

      Climate change continues to worsen and supply shortages are giving people a taste of a world with limited resources.

      氣候變化繼續惡化,供應短缺讓人們體驗到了一個資源有限的世界。

      The problems have led some economic experts to consider what a degrowth world might look like.

      這些問題促使一些經濟專家思考去增長的世界可能會是什么樣子。

      The U.N. climate science agency this year called for cuts in consumer demand, a major degrowth idea.

      聯合國氣候科學機構今年呼吁削減消費者需求,這是一個主要的去增長的理念。

      In April, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change declared that cuts to consumer demand were needed to reduce carbon emissions.

      今年4月,政府間氣候變化專門委員會宣布,要減少碳排放,就需要削減消費者需求。

      Efforts to reduce carbon emissions were previously centered on increasing the use of clean fuel technology.

      減少碳排放的努力以前集中在增加清潔燃料技術的使用上。

      The term has also started to appear in investment notes.

      這個術語也開始出現在投資筆記中。

      "It is a provocative term," said Aniket Shah.

      阿尼克特·沙阿說:“這是一個具有挑釁性的詞”。

      He is with the investment banking company Jefferies.

      他在投資銀行公司杰富瑞工作。

      But it's not about going to a low-income country saying, 'You can't grow anymore'," he said.

      但它指的不是對一個低收入國家說,‘你不能再增長了’,他說。

      "It's saying: We need to look at the entire system and see how do we over time decrease total consumption and production in aggregate."

      “它指的是:我們需要著眼于整個系統,看看我們如何隨著時間的推移總體上減少總消費量和總產量?!?/p>

      The World Economic Forum, the organization that runs the Davos economic meeting, published a degrowth article in June.

      今年6月,舉辦達沃斯經濟會議的組織世界經濟論壇發表了一篇有關去增長的文章。

      The article suggested that "it might mean people in rich countries changing their diets, living in smaller houses and driving and traveling less."

      這篇文章提出,“這可能意味著富裕國家的人們改變飲食,住更小的房子,減少開車和出行?!?/p>

      For Jefferies' Shah, those kinds of behavioral changes could make degrowth investments more popular.

      對于在杰富瑞銀行公司工作的沙阿來說,這些行為變化可能會讓去增長投資更受歡迎。

      He said that the online meeting service Zoom, for example, is a company that could be considered degrowth.

      他表示,例如,在線會議服務公司Zoom就可以被視為一家去增長公司。

      “…I can certainly see how a world that uses more web-conferencing ... means less travel, which is a very high-carbon-intensive way of transportation," said Shah.

      沙阿說:“……我肯定能看到一個使用更多網絡會議的世界……這意味著會有更少的出行,這是一種高度碳密集型的交通方式?!?/p>

      Some countries have tried to measure economic outcomes differently than just growth.

      一些國家試圖以不同的方式來衡量經濟結果,而不僅僅是增長。

      The small Asian nation of Bhutan famously created a "gross national happiness" measurement.

      亞洲小國不丹創造了著名的“國民幸??傊怠?。

      Japan is looking into creating a "green GDP" measurement.

      日本正在研究創造一種“綠色GDP”的指標。

      GDP, short for Gross Domestic Product, means the value of goods and services produced in a country.

      GDP是國內生產總值的縮寫,指的是一國生產的商品和服務的價值。

      But still, economic policy and markets are mostly driven by increasing consumption and production.

      但是,經濟政策和市場主要還是由不斷增加的消費和生產推動的。

      Tim Jackson is an economist who has long criticized that model.

      蒂姆·杰克遜是一位經濟學家,他長期以來一直批評這種模式。

      He said the pandemic and the Ukraine war both challenged consumption with other concerns, like health or global political goals.

      他說,疫情和烏克蘭戰爭都在其他問題(比如健康或全球政治目標)上對消費構成了挑戰。

      At the same time, some countries could enter a state where their economies show little if any growth.

      與此同時,一些國家可能會進入一種經濟增長甚微(如果有的話)的狀態。

      This could be caused by many things like an aging population, limited international trade, or a lack of economic reforms.

      這可能是由許多因素造成的,比如人口老齡化、國際貿易有限或缺乏經濟改革。

      Japan is a country that has experienced this.

      日本就是一個經歷這種情況的國家。

      Experts also see it as a risk for Germany unless it quickly reforms its economic model.

      專家還認為,除非德國迅速改革其經濟模式,否則這對德國來說也是一種風險。

      "Particularly in the advanced economies we are moving into a situation where to all intents and purposes, we're pretty much not looking at continued growth already," said Jackson.

      杰克遜說:“尤其是在發達經濟體,我們正步入這樣一種局面:無論出于何種意圖和目的,我們基本上已經看不到持續增長的跡象了?!?/p>

      "If we haven't got an economics that will deal with that ... then we've got very little chance of managing it successfully."

      “如果我們沒有一套可以解決這個問題的經濟學……那么,我們成功管理它的可能性微乎其微?!?/p>

      I’m Dan Novak.

      丹·諾瓦克為您播報。

      譯文為可可英語翻譯,未經授權請勿轉載!

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