Asset Prices: The bull market in everything
Prices are high across a range of assets. Is it time to worry?
In his classic, “The Intelligent Investor”, first published in 1949, Benjamin Graham, a Wall Street sage, distilled what he called his secret of sound investment into three words: “margin of safety”.
在他初版于1949年的經典著作《聰明的投資者》中，華爾街圣人本杰明·格林漢姆把他稱之為是他的堅實投資之秘密的東西濃縮成了四個字：安全邊際（margin of safety 在英語中是三個字，轉換為漢語是四個字）。
The price paid for a stock or a bond should allow for human error, bad luck or, indeed, many things going wrong at once.
In a troubled world of trade tiffs and nuclear braggadocio, such advice should be especially worth heeding.
Yet rarely have so many asset classes—from stocks to bonds to property to bitcoins—exhibited such a sense of invulnerability.
Dear assets are hardly the product of euphoria.
No one would mistake the bloodless run-up in global stockmarkets, credit and property over the past eight years for a reprise of the “roaring 20s”, or even an echo of the dotcom mania of the late 1990s.
Yet only at the peak of those two bubbles has America's S&P 500 been higher as a multiple of earnings measured over a ten-year cycle.
Rarely have creditors demanded so little insurance against default, even on the riskiest “junk” bonds.
And rarely have property prices around the world towered so high.
American house prices have bounced back since the financial crisis and are above their long-term average relative to rents.
Those in Britain are well above it.
And in Canada and Australia, they are in the stratosphere.
Add to this the craze for exotica, such as cryptocurrencies, and the world is in the throes of a bull market in everything.